CFD trading glossary. CFD terms and expressions explained

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CFD Glossary – CFD Trading Terms Explained

Updated on: 6 January 2020

Since navigating through the dense environment of the trading business can be confusing enough, the last thing on your mind should be having to deal with all the alien jargon that will simply add salt to the wound. To prevent that situation, here is the complete jargon glossary you need.

CFD (Contract for Difference) – It is a 2-party contract involving a seller and a buyer, which both agree on exchanging the difference in value of a specific asset, over a given period of time. In this case, the buyer doesn’t have to purchase the asset in order to control it, nor does he have to invest an amount equivalent to the asset’s value.

Margin – The amount of money you need to invest in order to control a given asset. The margin represents a certain percentage of the asset’s full value and it serves to show the amount of money you risk losing. Although, with CFDs, you can lose more than your investment.

Leverage/Gearing – The market exposure you get by using the margin. The leverage will allow you to control a given X position only by investing a margined amount of money, representing a percentage of the X’s value.

Spread – The difference between the Ask/Sell and the Bid/Buy prices.

Ask/Sell/Offer – The price offered by the seller, which you need to pay in order to gain control over the asset. It is the higher limit of the spread.

Bid/Buy – The price at which you can sell the asset towards other buyers. It is the lower limit of the spread.

Open position – The act of placing a trade, regardless of its nature.

Close position – The act of closing the trade, regardless whether the predicted outcome has been achieved or not.

Long – The act of buying an asset, predicting that its value will climb, allowing you to resell it later on for profit.

Short – The act of selling an asset, predicting that its value will fall, allowing you to repurchase later cheaper and wait for it to climb again.

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Pip/point – A single unit of a given price. The spread (the difference between the ask and the bid price) is measured in pips.

Holding costs/Overnight fees – A regular fee applied to all trading positions that are being hold open after the market is closed (5 PM New York time).

Hedging – A risk management technique relying on selling your position at a given price and a given moment in the future, in case you suspect the market will move in the opposite direction of what you have predicted.

Stop-loss – An instruction placed into the system to automatically close your position if a specified price is being reached or surpassed, with the purpose of cutting the losses.

Limit-profit – An instruction placed into the system to automatically closed your position when the goal price is being reached or surpassed, with the purpose of guaranteeing cashing in the profit.

Slippage – A phenomenon that occurs during high volatility markets, when an asset’s price jumps or drops too fast for a stop-loss or limit-profit order to be executed in time.

Guaranteed stop-loss/Guaranteed limit-profit – A command prompt that functions exactly like regular stop-loss and limit-profit orders, with the difference being that, in this case, the action is guaranteed to be successful, regardless of any market slippages.

Trailing stop – It is a special limit-profit type of order that only closes your position if the market moves against your predictions. It allows you to set automatic thresholds for the trailing stop order to take into account when the market moves to your direction, which the system will see as reference points when deciding to close your position during market drawbacks.

New order – An automatic command prompt that will open a new position when the market reaches a price specified in advance.
Gapping – The sudden and abrupt movements of the market, either in one direction or another, causing the price to skip the prices in between 2 given values (the one before the gap occurs and the one after it ends).

Charts/graphs – Visual representations registering price movements over given periods of time. It is used for all types of assets and its main role is to help identify patterns and place market predictions based on the information being displayed.

Trading platform – The software used to engage in the trading activity.

Quote – The price being offered on the market, for a specific asset.

Positive/negative settlements – The act of closing your position either with a profit, or with a loss.

Futures – Financial contracts between 2 parties, obligating the buyer to purchase a specific asset at a given price and at a given moment in the future. Futures are usually used as hedges.

Fix return rate – A fix price that is impassible to market fluctuations. The asset delivering a fix return rate will not be influenced by market movements, regardless of their direction.

Variable return rate – A variable price that is influenced by the movements of the market.

Rollover – Extending your position beyond its expiration date by opening a new position after closing the old one.

Underlying market – The totality of prices that serve as reference points for quotes. As the underlying market shifts, causing the underlying asset prices to change, the quotes will change accordingly, for each case in particular.

Spread betting – Placing a bet on those assets that have variable return rates.

Trading Terminology: Glossary of Forex and CFD Terms

This page provides a collection of terms necessary for traders to understand the complex terminology of Forex and CFD trading. The most commonly used trading terms, acronyms, and abbreviations are presented here explaining the core ideas and methods used by traders every day.

Each term is given a specific concept explaining its exact meaning in the financial market. At first sight, the terms in the dictionary of a trader may seem difficult for beginners, but this useful Forex and CFD trading glossary will make the learning process much easier.

In the terms of Forex and CFD trading you may find expressions you are unaware of and learn their meanings. By a simple click, you can get much more detailed information of these terms.

Ask price

The ask price is the price at which one buys any financial instrument.

Average True Range Indicator

The ATR indicator was developed to measure market volatility.

Average Directional Index (ADX)

Average Directional Index (ADX) is a technical indicator developed by Welles Wilder to determine the strength of a trend and the further price movement by analyzing the dynamics and the differences between the lowest and highest trading prices.


The Accelerator/Decelerator technical indicator shows the acceleration or deceleration of the current market driving force.


Accumulation/Distribution is an indicator designed to reflect cumulative inflows and outflows of money by comparing closing prices with corresponding highs and lows.


Alligator is an indicator created to identify the trends and their directions.

Ascending Triangle

The Ascending triangle graphical price pattern is a chart pattern of an existing trend continuation, which is usually formed in an uptrend and confirms its further direction.

Ask Rate


Slang term for the Australian dollar.

Awesome Oscillator

Awesome Oscillator (AO) is an indicator which reflects precise changes in the market driving force which helps to identify the strength of a trend including the points of its formation and reversal.

Automated Trading

Automated trading gives an opportunity to make the trading process absolutely automated.


The Australian dollar and the US dollar currency pair. In this pair the Australian dollar is the base currency, and the US dollar is the quoted one.


Simultaneous purchase of an undervalued financial asset and sale of its overvalued equivalent in order to make further risk-free profit from the price difference of assets which emerged as a result of temporary market inefficiency.


An instrument which has an economic value and may generate income in future.


Abandon literally means rejection (from the French. Abandon). As applied to the sphere of financial operations, abandon can be a waiver of any right or property, withdrawal from a transaction, waiver of using an option until its full expiration date. “Abandon”

ADR (American Depository Receipts)

The American Depositary Receipt is used to trade in securities of foreign companies in the United States. Shares of foreign companies are acquired by the American depositary bank in the process of listing these shares on US stock exchanges. This scheme has been used since 1927. Receipts (ADRs) are denominated in US dollars. In the same way, they are freely traded in Europe. ADRs are a tool for raising capital in the US and international markets. They may have different names that meet the requirements of a particular market.

AMEX (American Stock Exchange)

World Stock Exchange, which grew out of a small company of stock traders in the second largest US stock exchange. Its distinctive feature is that shares of firms that are in the development stage (small and medium business) are traded here. Two major indices are calculated on this exchange: AMEX Major Market Index and AMEX Market Value Index.

Balance/account balance

The total financial result of all the completed transactions and operations of the deposit/withdrawal of funds from a trading account.

Base currency

The first currency in a currency pair in the Forex market.

Bid Price

The bid price is the price at which one sells any financial instrument.

Bid/Ask Spread

The difference between the Bid and Ask prices.

Bear Market

A market, which is characterized by falling prices (quotes).


A company or an individual which acts as an intermediary in giving access to markets and organizing trading financial instruments for its clients.

Bull Market

A market which is characterized by an increase in prices (quotes).

Bollinger Bands Indicator

The Bollinger Bands indicator reflects the current market volatility changes, confirms direction, warns about the opportunities of trend continuation or trend end, consolidation periods, increasing volatility for breakouts, as well as indicates the local highs and lows.

Bearish Rectangle

The rectangle graphical pattern serves to confirm the direction of the existing trend. The bearish rectangle is formed in a downtrend and indicates high probability for the further decrease in the asset price.

Bullish Rectangle

The rectangle graphical pattern serves to confirm the direction of an existing trend. The bullish rectangle is formed in an uptrend and indicates high probability of continuation of the asset price growth.

Bill Williams Chaos Theory

Bill Williams developed his unique theory combining trading psychology with the Chaos theory and their impact on markets.

Bar chart

This type of chart contains four values of an asset price for each time interval: high, low, opening, and closing prices. High and low prices are reflected by a vertical line, while the opening and closing prices – by horizontal lines. The line on the left of the bar is the opening price, while the line on the right of the bar is the closing price.

Bank of Canada (BOC)

The Bank of Canada is the central bank of Canada.

Bank of England (BOE)

The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom.

Bank of Japan (BOJ)

The Bank of Japan is the central bank of Japan.


Basis is the difference in price between the futures price and the price of the underlying asset. The basis can be both positive and negative. By the time the contract expires, the basis will be zero, as futures and spot prices will be equal.

Basis point

A Basis point is a unit of measurement which is equal to one hundredth of a percent. When interest rates are calculated it is necessary to remove all ambiguity: in this case the unit becomes the base point. For example, an increase of the base rate from 7% to 7.2% would imply a 20 base point change.

Base Interest Rate

There are interest rates that banks set to determine the key interest rate for different types of lending. Their size depends on the supply and demand for credit resources, market interest rates and other factors. Initially, the base interest rate is set by the central bank of the country; at this rate, all other banks can borrow from the central bank. The base interest rate set by the central bank has a direct impact on the value of said country’s currency. Therefore, tracking changes in this indicator can help the trader in making trades in forex.


In the financial sphere, the term “beneficiary” is often used. It means the recipient of the benefit: in monetary or other terms. The beneficiary is a legal entity or an individual making a profit / profit in accordance with debt and other financial documents.

Big Board

Big Board is trader slang for the New York stock exchange. The exchange is the largest in the world in terms of the total cost of companies’ shares which from part of the listing. At this exchange the largest amount of stocks in the world are traded and over 3,000 corporations are quoted.

Binary options

Binary options are a relatively new financial instrument which differs in that they have a fixed cost and that risks and potential profit are known in advance. Binary options are considered a good instrument for novice traders since the possible profit is known before entering into a trade and a position can be opened by simply choosing which direction the price is believed to be heading.


Break is used to signify the sharp rise and fall of prices. This is an indicator of monetary imbalances, when sellers are significantly stronger than buyers of a particular financial instrument.

Bretton Woods Agreement

In 1944 in Bretton Woods in the USA, members of the United Nations signed an agreement to establish a currency exchange rate system for economically developed nations. The US dollar became the reserve currency since, following the end of World War Two, the USA could guarantee the exchange of their currency for a fixed amount of gold. To support a system of international payments, the IMF (International Monetary Fund) was created. However, the Bretton Woods agreement did not take into account the fact that countries would seek to accumulate as big a dollar reserve as possible. This meant that the US could be put in a situation where it couldn’t cover the reserves using its gold. When Western Germany and France began to exchange their dollar reserves for gold in 1971 the US abandoned the obligations that they had assumed since 1944.

A trader or an investor who acts with the belief that the market and prices on a certain financial instrument (currency pair, stock, etc.) will rise. Bull opens buy trades (long position).


Backwardation is a situation in which the current futures price is lower than the price of the underlying asset. Backwardation is also sometimes called a situation where the futures price with a later expiration date is lower than the futures price with an earlier date.


The Channel is a sustainable corridor of fluctuations in the asset price with a constant width.


Charts are graphical reflections of price changes of a financial instrument over time.

Commodity Channel Index (CCI)

The Commodity Channel Index is an indicator developed by Donald Lambert. Despite the original purpose of the indicator to identify new trends, nowadays it is widely used to measure the current price level in relation to its average value.

Currency Pair

A financial instrument representing an operation of buying/selling of one currency for another.

Currency Cross Pairs

Those currency pairs that do not include the US dollar in foreign exchange market trade are referred to as cross currency pairs or crosses

Candlestick chart

This type of chart shows the opening and closing prices and also the highest and the lowest prices during a period. In case the opening price is higher than the closing price the body of the candle is shaded. In contrast, when the closing price is higher than the opening price, the body is not shaded.

The abbreviation CFD stands for “Contract for Difference”. It is a contract between two parties: the seller pays the buyer the difference between the current value of an underlying asset and its value at the moment the contract is made if the difference is positive, and, vice versa, if the difference is negative, the buyer pays the seller. With CFDs traders can get access to underlying assets without actually owning them.


The procedure of settling orders between transacting parties.

Cross pair

An exchange rate between two currencies derived from their corresponding rates with a third currency. As a rule, the term refers to a currency pair which does not contain the US dollar.

Commodity currencies

Currencies of the countries, whose exports are mainly based on natural resources. The group may include currencies of both developing and developed countries, such as the Canadian dollar, the Australian dollar, the New Zealand dollar, the Russian ruble and others.

Daily chart

A chart of the market movement, where one day is the time unit.

Day trading

Trading operations which are performed within one day.


A company or an individual which acts as a leading executor or a counterparty to the transaction.

DeMarker (DeM) Indicator

This indicator was developed as a tool to identify emerging buying and selling opportunities. It demonstrates the phases of the growing probability of price changes which usually correspond to the highs and lows of a price.

Descending Triangle

The Descending triangle graphical price pattern is a chart pattern of an existing trend continuation, which is usually formed in a downtrend and confirms its further direction.


The graphical price pattern “Diamond” is a sign of a subsequent reversal of an existing trend. Traditionally, the pattern is formed in an uptrend.

Double Top

The double top graphical price pattern is a sign of a reversal of an existing uptrend. It is considered that the longer the formation of the pattern, the more reliably it indicates a reversal.

Double Bottom

The double bottom graphical price pattern is a sign of a reversal of an existing downtrend. It is considered that the longer the formation of the pattern, the more reliably it indicates a reversal.


Decrease in value of an asset.


A financial contract, the value of which depends on the value of one or more underlying assets. Such underlying assets may include indices, stocks, commodities, currencies and other assets.

A monetary unit used in 19 countries of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Estonia.


The last day, when the deal on a derivative contract (futures, option, etc.) may be either executed or cancelled.

Economic calendar

An economic calendar is a calendar of events provided by brokers and other financial companies through which traders track the events affecting the price movements of assets.


The most popular currency pair where Euro, is the base currency traded against the US dollar- the quoted currency.


The currency pair, formed from Euro and the Japanese yen, shows how many Japanese yen are needed to purchase one Euro.

Envelopes Indicator

The Envelopes indicator reflects the overbought or the oversold state of the price, thus allowing to determine the entry and exit points from the market, as well as the moments of the possible trend break-down.

Foreign Exchange (Forex)

The market where participants have the opportunity to buy, sell, exchange and speculate on currencies. The Forex market is comprised of commercial banks, central banks, investment management companies, hedge- funds, retail forex brokers and investors (traders).

Fundamental analysis

The analysis of economic and political events, which may affect the future direction of prices in financial markets. In the currency market, fundamental analysis is based primarily on macroeconomic events.

Forward transaction

Forward transaction is an urgent transaction in which the seller and the buyer agree to deliver the sold asset (currency, commodity) on a certain date in the future, while the price of the asset is decided at the moment of making the deal.

Forex Dealer

A Forex dealer is a financial company authorized to organize foreign currency trading.

The Flag refers to short-term graphical price patterns of trend continuation which show that its direction will remain unchanged in the near future. For example, on the daily chart, this pattern is often formed within a week or two.

Forex Resistance

Price level which acts as a ceiling and caps the rise of the current currency price.

Fractals Indicator

Fractal is an indicator, which displays the local highs and lows where the price movement has stopped and reversed. These reversal points are respectively called Peaks and Troughs.

Force Index

The Force Index is an indicator developed by Alexander Elder to measure the power of price movements interpreting the changes of its components: direction, magnitude and volume. This oscillator fluctuates around the zero level, which is the point of relative balance of forces that move the price.


GBP stands for British Pound which in this currency pair is traded against US dollar. The currency pair shows how many US dollars are needed to purchase one British Pound.

Gator Oscillator

The Gator Oscillator (GO) is a supplement to the Alligator indicator and is used alongside with it, showing the degree of convergence/divergence of its three SMAs and pointing at the Alligator’s hunger or sleep periods (i.e. trending or non-trending periods of price movement).

A break between prices, when the asset is having a big move up or down without trades occurring.

Growth stock

Growth stock is what they call a company’s shares which have good profit indicators (higher than average) over a certain period of time (generally a few years) or shares which have a good potential for growth in the near future. The main demarking aspect of this stock’s growth is that its value often rises much faster than that of other stock. However, a rapid decline in the value of such stock is also possible. Furthermore, stockholders for such companies either receive no share dividend whatsoever, or receive only a small dividend since profit is invested in the company’s development, especially when the company is relatively new.


A strategy to decrease the risk of impact of volatile price fluctuations on trader’s positions. As a rule, hedging involves the sale or purchase at the forward price or the opening of a position on a similar asset. Hedging becomes more popular with the increase of market uncertainty.

Head and Shoulders

The head and shoulders graphical price pattern indicates the end of an existing trend and the further change in the direction of the price movement. It is typically formed in a developed uptrend.

Inverse Head and Shoulders

The inverse head and shoulders graphical price pattern is a sign of a trend reversal. This pattern is usually formed in a developed downtrend.

Ichimoku Indicator

The Ichimoku indicator is a comprehensive technical analysis tool introduced in 1968 by Tokyo columnist Goichi Hosoda. The concept of the system was the opportunity to quickly understand the direction of the trend, its dynamics and strength by interpreting all the five components of the system combined with the price dynamics in terms of cyclical character of their interaction caused by the group dynamics of human behavior.


A process of a persistent rising of general level of prices of goods and services.

Limit order

An order to buy or sell the given amount of an asset at a specified price or at a better one. For example, if the current price of USD/JPY is 108.24/108.26 (Bid/Ask), the trader can set a buy limit order, for example, at 107.50, if the price falls and the Ask price reaches 107.50, the deal will be made and the corresponding Buy position will be opened.


The feature of the market (its volume) to provide the execution of large deals with no significant influence on prices.


A credit provided by the broker to his client for making large volume deals with a relatively small amount of capital.


LIBID stands for London Interbank Bid Rate. LIBOR stands for London Interbank Offered Rate.

Liquid market

A market where traders can buy and sell large volumes of assets anytime and with low transaction costs.

Standard quantity of financial assets in one transaction.

Listed Stocks

This list contains stocks which are approved for trading on the stock exchanges. Before you get to the stock in the list, the shares go through the admission procedure – listing. Only companies that have been checked for compliance with certain requirements, such as capitalization, volumes of products sold, the number of securities in circulation, and others, are admitted to trading.


A certain amount of money required from a client to maintain opened positions.

Market order

The order of the purchase or sale of a financial instrument (e.g. currency) at the current market price.

Moving-Average Convergence/Divergence Indicator

MACD indicator shows the convergence/divergence of moving averages and is designed to assess the strength and direction of a trend, as well as to identify the possible reversal points by receiving signals from the combination of three time series of moving averages (fast, slow and signal).

Market Facilitation Index

The Market Facilitation Index is created to evaluate the market willingness to move the price. The absolute values of the indicator have no practical use therefore the dynamics of their changes is considered relative to the dynamics of the volume change.

Momentum Indicator

The Momentum is a technical analysis indicator which reflects the direction of a trend and measures the speed of the price change based on the comparison of the current and previous values.

Moving Average Indicator

Moving Average is a technical analysis tool which shows the average price of an asset price over a certain period of time, smoothens price fluctuations and thus, reflects the direction and strength of a trend.

Moving Average Envelopes

The indicator is used to determine the overbought and the oversold situations.

Moving Average of Oscillator

Moving Average of Oscillator (OsMA) is a technical analysis tool which reflects the difference between the oscillator (like MACD) and its moving average (the signal line).

Money Flow Index (MFI)

Money Flow Index (MFI) is a technical indicator developed to evaluate money inflow intensity into an asset by comparing price increases and decreases over a certain period, considering trading volumes.

Margin call

Company’s request for additional deposit of funds into a trading account.


The suggested price at which a currency can be bought (“Ask” price).


Any instruction by a client on performing trading operations.

Open position

Any transaction that has not been closed by a corresponding opposite transaction.

On-Balance Volume (OBV)

On-Balance Volume is a cumulative indicator, based on the index of trade volumes, and reflecting the relation between the volume of deals and asset price movements.

OCO order

OCO order is a combination of two pending orders set to open a position at prices different from the current market price. Execution of one of the two orders brings to an automatic removal of the remaining one.

Out-of-the-money Option

An Out-of-the-money Option is when, during trading, the option is worth less than was paid for it. For example, you predict that the price of an asset will rise, but it falls. Your forecast doesn’t come true and you lose money on the option. The option can fluctuate in and out of the money: i.e. be profit making (in-the-money) at one point and loss making (out-of-the-money) at another before the option expires.

Point or pip

The smallest possible change of quotation. As a rule, pip is equal to 0.0001 or 0.00001 for the majority of currency pairs, which are quoted to the fourth or fifth decimal point after the comma, but for JPY pairs it is 0.01 or 0.001 and is quoted to the second or third decimal point. For other financial instruments, the pip is usually equal from 0.1 to 0.001.

Parabolic Indicator

Parabolic indicator was developed to confirm or reject trend direction, to determine the emergence of the correction phase or sideways movement, as well as to determine possible closing points for positions. The underlying principle of the indicator can be described by the phrase “stop and reverse” (SAR).


Pennant refers to short-term graphical price patterns of trend continuation, indicating that its direction will be unchanged in the near future. For example, on the daily chart the pattern is usually formed within a week or two.

A financial instrument, which shows the value of one currency unit in terms of another.

Portfolio Trading

The simultaneous purchase or sale of a basket of securities, combined in a portfolio based on some criteria.


A positive financial result from trading operations.

Quoted currency

The second currency in a currency pair is called a quoted currency.

Retail customer

Any party to a forex trade who is not an eligible contract participant as defined under the Commodity Exchange Act. This includes individuals with assets of less than $10 million and most small businesses.


The process of extending the settlement date on an open position by rolling it over to the next settlement date.

Relative Strength Index (RSI)

Relative Strength Index was developed to assess the strength or, on the contrary, the weakness of a trend, measure the speed of the price change by comparing its increases and decreases on the basis of closing prices.

Relative Vigor Index

Relative Vigor Index was developed to determine the direction of the prevailing trend. The behavior of the indicator is based on a simple idea that closing prices are significantly higher than opening prices in the bullish market and lower in the bearish market.

Resistance Level

Resistance is one of the key concepts of technical analysis. Resistance is defined as a price level at which the activity of asset sellers is quite significant to prevent the further purchase and increase in asset price.

The value of one currency in terms of another.

Risk management

The identification and assessment of the risk level, as well as taking actions to eliminate the risk to a new desired level and monitoring that new risk level.

Spot price

The current price in the spot market.


The difference between the Bid and Ask prices. In the quotes flow, received by the client in the trading terminal, both prices are presented. The current spread for a currency pair or an asset is an important part of liquidity of that financial instrument.

Security deposit

The amount of money needed to open or maintain a position. Also known as ‘margin.’


The business process whereby securities are delivered to the buyer in exchange for payment to the seller, which usually takes place one to three days after the deal.

Spot market

A market, where trades are conducted with instant execution. Also note, that in the spot market the proprietary rights are transferred from the seller to the buyer at the moment of making a deal, and the final settlements may take up to two working days.


Slang term for the British pound (GBP).

Strike price

The exchange rate at which the buyer of a call has the right to purchase a specific currency pair or at which the buyer of a put has the right to sell a specific currency pair. Also known as the ‘exercise price.’

Stochastic Oscillator

The Stochastic indicator determines the position of the current closing price in the price range of the last few periods, based on the idea that the price tends to the upper bound of fluctuations in an uptrend and to the lower bound- in a downtrend.

Symmetric Triangle

The Symmetric triangle graphical price pattern is a chart pattern of an existing trend continuation, which may be formed both in an uptrend and in a downtrend, and serves to confirm its further directions.

Support Level

Support is one of the key concepts of technical analysis. Support is defined as a price level at which the activity of asset buyers is quite significant to prevent the further sale and decrease in its price.

Stop Loss order

Stop loss order is designed to limit possible losses and is set at a price worse than the price of position opening or the price of pending order execution.

The operation of crediting or debiting acertain amount of money from a client’s account when rolling the position over to the next value date (“to the next day”). The size of swap is proportional to the volume of the position and depends on the current difference of interest rates of base and quoted currencies (or assets) in the interbank lending market.


Investments can be attracted in different ways. One of them is the issue of share , which allows investors to become shareholders of the company and have the right, thereby, to receive dividends from the company’s profit. Shares are not only a tool for receiving dividends, but on the stock market, investors can earn money due to periodic fluctuations in the price of these share.


The saucer is a long-term figure of technical analysis, signifying a slow change in the tendency of price to fall on a growth trend. Usually the saucer has an arcuate bottom, which is clearly seen on the weekly charts. The period of formation of this figure can last more than a year.

Technical analysis

Technical analysis is used to forecast future changes in financial and commodity markets based on the history of price changes, i.e. past price movements.

The smallest movement possible in the price of a financial instrument.

Transaction costs

The costs, incurred by a trader when buying or selling currencies or commodities, which include the commission fee of a broker.

Transaction date

The date of the deal.

Trend line

The lines connecting a series of extreme upper or extreme lower points on a price chart.

Trend Continuation Patterns

Trend continuation patterns (graphical models, patterns) are formed during the pause in the current market trends, and mark the movement continuation rather than its reversal.

Trend Reversal Patterns

The Trend Reversal patterns are graphical models (patterns), which are formed after the price level reaches its high in the current trend and indicate high probability of trend reversal.

Triple Top

The Triple top graphical price pattern is usually formed in an uptrend anticipating its further reversal and decrease in prices. This pattern is considered to be more significant than the “double top”.

Triple Bottom

The Triple bottom graphical price pattern is usually formed in a downtrend and serves as a sign of its further reversal. This pattern is considered to be more significant than the “double bottom”.

Technical Indicators

Technical indicators are the inseparable part of technical analysis. Their aim is to predict the direction of the market to help a trader. There is a great number of indicators used by traders for determining the market movement. Some traders prefer to use those indicators which have proved to be efficient in trading in the past, while others try using new indicators. Bill Williams’ indicators, Oscillators, Trend and Volume indicators may serve as examples.

Take Profit order

Take Profit is designed to close a position once the targeted profit level has been reached by setting it at a price better than the price of position opening or the price of pending order execution.

Trailing Stop

Trailing Stop mode maintains the mechanism of automatic shift of a linked Stop Loss order according to the following rule: if the profit of a position becomes higher than the set fixed distance, the Stop Loss order moves to the level on which the difference between the current market price and order price is equal to this distance.


The US dollar and the Swiss franc currency pair, where the US dollar is the base currency and the Swiss franc is the quoted currency.


The US dollar and the Japanese yen currency pair. In this currency pair the US dollar is the base currency while the Japanese yen is the quoted one.


The currency pair, formed from the US dollar and the Canadian dollar, indicates how many Canadian dollars are needed to purchase one US dollar.

Volume Indicators

The Volume of deals characterizes the activity of market participants involved in asset trading, its strength and intensity.

Volume Indicator

Volume is a technical analysis indicator, which reflects investors’ trading activity for a certain period of time.

Value date

Date on which counterparties must deliver funds, that is when the currency bought is received and the currency sold is paid.


A measure of risk, usually a statistical indicator, which evaluates the degree of the price fluctuation of an asset.


The wedge refers to short-term graphical price patterns of trend continuation indicating that its direction will remain unchanged in the near future. For example, on the daily chart the pattern is often formed within a week or two.

Williams Percent Range Indicator

The objective of the indicator is to determine the overbought or oversold conditions of the asset and the possible reversal points.

A-Z of trading slang expressions and investment terms

Trading slang glossary:


American depository receipts. Certificates issued by a bank saying that a specific amount of a company’s shares have been deposited with them. Traded on US exchanges as if they were US securities.


Annual equivalent rate. The equivalent rate if interest were added to an investment yearly.


Annual general meeting. When company directors present the annual report to shareholders. Listed companies must hold this meeting once a year.


Alternative Investment Market. The London Stock Exchange’s market for smaller, newer companies.


Annual percentage rate. The rate of interest you pay on money you borrow.

Absolute return

The gain or loss on an investment expressed as a percentage of invested capital. Focus on the return that an investment fund achieves over a period of time not in comparison to rivals or peers. Often employing diverse investment techniques including short selling, futures, options, derivatives, arbitrage, leverage and unconventional assets.


Accrued interest

Interest earned either since the start of the investment or since the last interest payment date.


The performance of an investment compared with a suitable market index.


Any cryptocurrency that isn’t Bitcoin.

Alternative investments

Investments other than shares, bonds or cash.


Decrease in an asset’s value over time.

Annual report

Distributed yearly to a company’s shareholders. Contains the company’s accounts and runs through the past business year.


The purchaser of an annuity enters a contract with an insurer whereby an upfront lump sum payment is exchanged for a guaranteed income stream. Annuities are popular in retirement planning as they can allow retirees to lock in a given level of income for the remainder of their lives.


The rise in the value of an asset.


Taking advantage of price differences of the same item in different markets.

Ask price

Price to buy, such as a CFD or a forex base currency.


Something that has a value to its owner. Often used to refer to a specific tradable item, such as an individual stock, commodity or currency pair.

Asset-backed securities

Securities where the income comes from a pool of underlying assets.

Asset class

Investments of a similar type, such as equities.

Asset stripping

Selling off a company’s assets rather than developing the business.


All-time-high – the highest price an assets or index has ever reached.

At the money

When an option’s strike price is the same as the current price.

Authorised share capital

The amount of share capital that a company is allowed to allocate to shareholders.

Average earnings growth

An indicator of future inflation rates.

Averaging down

A trading technique in which you buy a falling stock with sound fundamentals and keep buying as if falls further. It works on the basis that the more you buy at a cheaper price, the lower the average price of your stock and the more you will make, or the earlier you can sell at a profit, when the price rebounds.


Bank for International Settlements. Based in Switzerland.


Backwardation refers to the situation in which the spot or cash price of a commodity is higher than the forward price. It is the reverse of contango.

Balance of payments

Money going into a country minus money going out during a particular period.

Balance sheet

A summary of a company’s assets and liabilities taken at a particular point.


A way of allocating shares when issues are oversubscribed.


Person left holding an asset that has become worthless.

Bank of England

The UK’s central bank. Founded in 1694. Based on Threadneedle Street, London.

Base currency

The first currency in a currency pair.

Base rate

The minimum interest rate at which banks will lend to customers. Decided in the UK by the Bank of England’s monetary policy committee (MPC), and in the euro zone by the European Central Bank (ECB).

Basis point

One hundredth of 1%.


An investor who looks to profit from a downturn in the market or the price of a particular share.


Pessimistic that the market will fall.

Bear market

A general decline in stock market prices over time. Usually accompanied by widespread pessimism.

Bear raid

A concerted attempt to force down the price of a stock to cover a short position.


Something that the performance of an investment can be compared against, such as an index.


A measure of the volatility of an investment relative to the market as a whole.


Specific sub-conscious behaviours (called representativeness heuristics) in trading psychology that affect individual trader’s actions. Common ones include overconfidence loss aversion, herding, confirmation, anchor bias, the disposition effect and the hot hand fallacy. Here is a list of 50 biases.

Bid-offer spread

The difference between the buying price (offer) and the selling price (bid) of shares, currency etc.

Bid Price

The price at which the market will buy the product.

Big Mac index

Uses the cost of a Big Mac in different countries to compare purchasing power.


The original cryptocurrency.

The original cryptocurrency.

Black swan

An event that is extremely hard to predict. Derives from Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s book of the same name.

Black-Scholes model

A way of pricing options.


The digital ledger that records all cryptocurrency transactions.

Blue chip

A high-quality company. Derived from blue being the highest value poker chip.


A fixed-term loan to a company or institution.

Bonus issue

Extra shares issued free to existing shareholders. Also known as a scrip issue.

Book cost

The purchase cost of assets.

Bottom fishing

Buying shares when the price is thought to have bottomed out after falling sharply.


An investment approach based on picking individual stocks.


Another name for a stock exchange.

Brent crude

A benchmark oil.


Buys and sells investments for clients.


When the price of an asset rises far higher than can be justified by fundamentals. Likely to be followed by a collapse in price.



Public spending and how it will be paid for.


An investor who looks to profit from an upturn in the market or the price of a particular share.


Confident the market will rise.

Bull market

A market with a general upward trend over time. Usually accompanied by widespread optimism.


Germany’s central bank

Business cycle

The move between boom and bust.

Buyer’s market

Low prices and plentiful supply.


When a controlling stake in a company is bought by a single party.

CAC 40

France’s version of the FTSE 100 but with 40 companies in the index.


Collateralised Debt Obligation. An asset-backed security where the underlying assets are various debt obligations. Doesn’t have a good reputation.


Contract for difference. A derivative where the parties agree to settle the difference in opening and closing prices. Uses leverage.


Consumer Price Index. A measure of consumer price inflation based on the cost of a basket of common household goods. The main measure of inflation in the UK.


The US dollar/GB pound pair, represented as USD/GBP.


A further payment for partly-paid shares.

Callable bond

A bond where the issuer has the option to redeem it early.

Call money

Short-term finance repayable on demand.

Call option

The right to buy an agreed amount of a commodity or security for an agreed price by an agreed date.

Candlestick chart

Shows trading range and opening and closing prices for a day.


Money or assets put to economic use.

Capital expenditure

Money spent on fixed assets.

Capital gains tax

Tax charged on certain investment gains above an annual limit.

Capital markets

Markets where money is raised and securities traded.

Capital receipt

Money received from selling fixed assets.

Carry trade

When a currency that has a low interest rate is borrowed to purchase another currency with a higher interest rate.


A county court judgment. When the court issues an order that you must pay a specific debt. Will worsen your credit rating and may impede your ability to borrow, or raise the price at which you can borrow.

Central bank

The banker to the government and other banks in a country, such as the Bank of England.

Certificate of deposit

A fixed-term, fixed-interest deposit with a bank or building society. Also known as a CD.

Chargeable asset

One that may incur capital gains tax.


The study of historical market data to try and predict future movements.


Collectibles that can be bought and sold as investments, such as antique furniture, stamps, artwork, jewellery.

Chinese walls

Controls to stop conflicts of interest in financial institutions that offer a range of services.


Excessive dealing in securities.

Class action

A legal action by a group of investors against a company or its directors to gain compensation for alleged negligence or illegal behaviour.

Clean price

The price of a bond excluding any accrued interest.

Close a position

Sell an asset you are holding or buy a asset you have sold short.

Closing bell

The end of the trading day on the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.

Collective investment scheme

A fund in which individual investors hold units of a pool of assets, such as a unit trust.


The amount paid to brokers for their services.


A physical item that can be processed and sold on, such as metals and oil.

Common investment fund

Where two or more entities pool assets together for investment.

Concentrated portfolio

One with fewer stocks than usual.


Increasing the nominal value of shares and decreasing the number in issue.


Financial stress in one area spreading to another indirectly related area.


Contango describes the typical situation where the futures price of a commodity is higher than the expected spot price at maturity of the futures contract. Contango is normal for a non-perishable commodity as storage fees and the time value of money translates into a cost of carry.


The standard unit of forex trading.

Contract note

Written confirmation of the purchase or sale of an investment.

Conventional bond

One with the coupon and principal payments fixed at the time of issue.

Convertible bond

One that can be exchanged for stock in the same company.

Corporate governance

The way in which a company is directed and managed.

Corporate raiders

Specialise on hostile takeovers of companies with undervalued assets.

Corporation tax

Paid by UK companies on their profits. Currently 19%.

Counter currency

The second currency in a currency pair.


A party in a financial transaction.


The regular interest payment due on a bond.

Credit default swap

A type of derivative that offers a guarantee against the non-payment of a debt. Also known as a CDS.

Credit rating

An assessment of how likely a bond issuer is to meet their obligations.


A UK system for holding and transferring securities electronically.


A pair of currencies that does not include the US dollar.


An encrypted digital currency. Bitcoin is the most famous example.


The system of money in general use in a country. Currencies have names, symbols and internationally recognised three-letter abbreviations. The dollar, $, USD. In the UK the short forms of ‘pound’ and ‘sterling’ are also used. Great British pound sterling, £, GBP.

Currency pair

Two currencies that make up a foreign exchange rate.

Cyclical stock

One that fares better in good times, such as a company selling discretionary items.


Deutsche Aktienindex. An index of 30 blue chip German companies listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.


Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation. Provides clearing and settlement services to the US financial markets.


Delivery versus payment. The simultaneous transfer of securities and cash between parties.

Dark pool

Secretive way of trading large volumes of shares.

Dawn raid

When an investor buys a substantial number of shares in a company as soon as the market opens. Often a prelude to a takeover bid.

Day trading

Buying and selling stocks during a trading day leaving no open positions at the close of the session.

Dead cat bounce

A brief resurgence during a concerted fall in price. Derived from the idea that even a dead cat will bounce if it falls from a great height.

Defensive stock

One that is generally immune to changes in the general economic climate, such as a utility stock.

Defined Benefit

A defined benefit pension scheme is much coveted as it will pay out a secure income for life on retirement that will typically increase each year in line with inflation. Such plans have become increasingly rare as they can be relatively expensive for employers to service over time.

Defined Contribution

Defined contribution schemes are occupational pension plans where the value of the ultimate benefits payable from depend on factors such as the amount of contributions paid, the investment return achieved on the funds invested. Contributions come from both the employer and employee.


A general decrease in the price of goods and services.


Fall in the value of an asset due to wear and tear, age and obsolescence.


A contract that derives its value from the performance of its underlying asset.

Discounted cashflow

A mathematical technique for expressing future cashflow at a current value.


A company giving cash or other assets to its shareholders.


Spreading investment funds among different kinds of assets to lower risk.


After-tax profit distributed to shareholders.

Dividend investing

Focus not just on rising share price but on the amount returned to shareholders in dividend payments, usually reinvesting the dividends in more stock. Sometimes called a DRIP – dividend reinvestment plan.

Dividend yield

Dividend per share divided by price per share. Usually expressed as a percentage.


A chronically underperforming share.


Someone whose top monetary policy priority is low unemployment.

Dow Jones Industrial Average

A price-weighted average of 30 blue chip stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange. One of the oldest and most widely quoted stock market indices. Also known as the Dow.


Sale of a stock at one tick down from the previous sale price.

Dubai crude

A benchmark oil.


Duration is a measure of the sensitivity of the price of a bond to changes in interest rates. In general, in tends to be higher for government bonds with longer periods to go until maturity. Bond prices are inversely related to interest rates.


A levy on the purchase of a specific product or raw material (or import). It is a kind of consumption tax. Examples include Stamp duty (on property and shares), fuel duty (on petrol and diesel) and alcohol duties.



Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation. Measures a company’s short-term cash flow generation in relation to its market valuation.


European Central Bank. The central bank for the European Union.

Elliott wave principle

Technical theory of trading based on analysing investor psychology, prices and other factors.


Exchange-traded commodity. Tracks the price of the underlying commodity. Traded like shares.


Exchange-traded fund. The underlying assets of the fund are divided into shares, which are then traded. Usually follows an index.


Exchange-traded products. Examples are ETCs and ETFs.

Earnings per share

Profits after tax divided by the number of shares issued.

Enterprise Value

The enterprise value tends to be thought of as a theoretical takeover price if a company were to be bought. It is calculated as market capitalisation plus debt, minority interest and preferred shares, minus total cash and cash equivalents.


The capital of a company that is owned by ordinary shareholders.

The value of something less money owing on it.


Official market place for trading assets, (stock exchange, commodity exchange, currency exchange).


The buying and selling of an investment.

Exercise price

The price at which an option holder can exercise their option.

Ex-gratia payment

A payment made by where there is no legal liability to pay.

Expiry date

The last date on which an option can be exercised.


Financial Conduct Authority. Regulates the financial services industry in the UK.

FTSE 100

The most widely used index for tracking the London market. Contains the 100 most capitalised companies on the London Stock Exchange.

FTSE 250

Index of the next 250 largest companies on the London Stock Exchange.

FTSE 350

Index of the FTSE 100 and FTSE 250 combined.

FTSE All-Share

Index of all companies listed on the London Stock Exchange.

FTSE SmallCap

Index of the companies outside the top 350 on the London Stock Exchange.


All the tech stocks listed on the London Stock Exchange.


A series of ethical stock market indexes launched by FTSE.

Fat-finger trade

A keyboard input error in the financial markets such as the stock market or foreign exchange market whereby an order to buy or sell is placed of far greater size than intended, for the wrong stock or contract, at the wrong price, or with any number of other input errors.

Fibonacci retracement

A mathematical theory for stock trading.


Abbreviation for the Federal Reserve Board.

Federal Reserve Board

Oversees the Federal Reserve Banks and helps establish US monetary policy.

Federal Reserve System

The US’s central bank. Also known as the Fed. There are 12 central reserve districts all with their own Federal Reserve bank.

Fiat money

A currency set as legal tender by a government but that has no intrinsic value – banknotes, rather than gold.

Financial Ombudsman Service (FOS)

An independent service to rule on complaints that remain unsolved through normal company complaints procedures. The decision of the ombudsman is binding, unless the firm appeals to the court. You must give the regulated firm eight weeks to resolve your complaint internally before going to the ombudsman.

Financial year

A company’s financial year can start when it likes. The most popular year-ends are 31 March and 31 December.


(UK) Relating to government revenue, especially taxes. (US) Relating to financial matters.

Fiscal year

(US) A year-long period that a company or government uses for accounting and annual reports. (UK) The year from 6 April to 5 March each year.

Fixed costs

Stay the same regardless of a company’s output.

Flash crash

A very rapid, deep, and volatile fall in security prices occurring within an extremely short time period. The May 6, 2020, flash crash was a trillion-dollar stock market crash on Wall Street, which started at 2:32pm EDT and lasted for 36 minutes.


The process of a privately-owned company becoming a listed company.

Splitting from the original blockchain and creating a new version of an existing cryptocurrency.

Forex market

Foreign exchange market. Where one currency is exchanged for another.

Forward contract

A private agreement to buy or sell something in the future.


Fear of missing out. Investing, without any analysis, just because everyone else is and they seem to be making money.


Fear, uncertainty and doubt. Baseless negativity spread intentionally by a short seller who benefit if price of something to drop.


Short-seller spreading FUD.

Fundamental analysis

Analysis of the value of a company using its accounts, its competition and the economy in general.

Futures contract

A more formal version of a forward contract, often used to hedge against movements in price of the underlying asset.


Foreign exchange market. Where one currency is exchanged for another.


Gross domestic product. The sum of all goods and services produced in the economy.


Open a trading account in less than 3 min

Global depository receipt. Derivative equities traded on foreign markets.


A company’s debt as a proportion of its equity capital. Also known as leverage.


Sterling bonds issued by the British government.

Go long

Invest expecting the price to go up.

Go short

Sell first expecting the price to go down, aiming to buy later, at lower price


The UK Treasury. From Government Office Great George Street.


Quoted in US$ per troy ounce.

Golden handcuffs

Incentives for executives to stay with a firm.

Golden handshake

A contractual clause guaranteeing an executive a substantial payoff if they lose their job.

Golden hello

Offering to executives to tempt them into changing jobs.

Golden parachute

A large payment to an executive if they lose their job through a merger or takeover.



Grey knight

An ambiguous intervener in a takeover battle , who makes a counterbid for the shares of the target company without having made their intentions clear.

Growth investing

Focus on companies with above-average capital growth, even if the share price appears expensive using traditional metrics such as price-to-earnings or price-to-book ratios.


A unit of GBP – £1.05 (21 shillings), still used in come contracts and in horse racing. The origin guinea coins contained 7.7g of gold and are worth that weight at the prevalent gold spot price.

Hang Seng


Someone whose top monetary policy priority is low inflation.


Taking on a new risk to offset an existing risk.

Hedge Fund

An investment fund that uses leverage and long and short positions across different asset categories to make an absolute return .Known for aggressive strategies.

High net worth

Categorisation of the wealthy, used in insurance and financial advice.

High yield bonds

High yield bonds pay out a higher level of income than an investment grade bond. This is because high yield bonds are deemed as riskier, often because the firms issuing such debt are small, start up companies or have a relatively high level of debt.

Horizontal merger

Companies at the same production stage in the same industry merging.

Hostile takeover

A takeover approach not supported by the board of the company being acquired.


Initial Coin Offering. Launch of a new cryptocurrency.


Initial public offering. Shares in a company offered to the market for the first time.


International Securities Identification Numbering System. The unique code given to a security and used worldwide.


Not easily converted into cash.

Illiquid market

One without sufficient buyers and sellers. Often results in bumpy price changes.


An indicator of trends in a market or economy. It moves as its component data changes value.


The increase in prices of goods and services over time.


The physical assets necessary to run a business.

Initial margin

The deposit needed by a broker before a margin transaction can be carried out.

Insider trading

The illegal use of inside information to make a profit or avoid a loss on market transactions.

Institutional investor

Companies such as pension funds and life-insurance funds. The big hitters of the financial markets.

Intangible assets

Things of value such as patents.

Interest rate

Fee paid to borrow money.

Interim dividend

Dividend based on performance during part of a company’s financial year.

Interim results

Figures for part of the financial year.

In the money

When exercising an option will make the holder money.

Investment grade

A bond is defined as investment grade if its credit rating is BBB- or higher by Standard & Poor’s or Baa3 or higher by Moody’s. The bonds issued by large-cap, blue-chip companies will usually be classified as investment grade debt.

Investment Trust

An investment trust is an investment vehicle that can be thought of as closed ended fund. It will be a listed company, investing in a portfolio of assets, so to buy shares in it and get exposure to the underlying investments you must acquire the shares of the investment trust on the stock exchange.


Individual Savings Account – tax free savings vehicle that can be used to invest in a range of assets and plans.


When someone uses their authority or position to influence something by speaking publicly.

Junk bond

A high-yield, lower rated bond.


A thousand (as in £10k)



London interbank offered rate. How much it costs banks to borrow from each other.


A company’s debt as a proportion of its equity capital. Also known as gearing.

Using borrowed money to increase the potential profits (or losses) on an investment.

Leveraged buyout

Borrowing money to buy a company.

Limit order

An order to buy or sell when a particular price is reached. Guarantees a trade at that price.

Liquid asset

One that can easily be converted into cash.

Liquid market

One with enough buyers and sellers for the price to move smoothly.


The process of winding up a company.

Lloyd’s (of London)

A society of specialist underwriters that have pooled money as a back-up for each other, incorporated under an act of parliament of 1871 and known as the corporation of Lloyd’s. It provides the premises, services, administrative staff and other facilities to enable the Lloyd’s market to underwrite insurance business.


Holding shares in expectation of a price rise.


The Canadian dollar.

Market intervention

When a central bank or other authority enters the market (usually forex) to buy and sell with the sole intention of manipulating prices.

Mifid II

New version of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive. Intended to make Europe’s markets safer, more transparent and more efficient.

Maintenance margin

The minimum amount of equity that must be maintained in a margin account.


The collateral needed in a margin account to trade – a proportion of the full value of the asset to be traded.

The equity in an investor’s account.

Margin account

A brokerage account where an investor is lent money to buy securities.

Margin call

A demand from a broker for more money to be put into a margin account.

Market capitalisation

The total value of a company. Price per share multiplied by number of shares.

Market order

An order to buy or sell at the current price.


Where you double your stake each time you lose until you eventually win back your entire losses and make a profit.

Midas touch

When every trade makes a good profit (everything turns to gold).


The process of creating additional amounts of a cryptocurrency.


Government’s coin manufacturer.


Large amount of money, as in ‘He made a mint from that deal’.

Momentum investing

Going long on a stock that has shown to be continually rising. Sometimes going short on a stock that is continually falling. The belief that the momentum will continue.

Monetary Policy Committee

Sets the UK’s interest rate. Chaired by the governor of the Bank of England.


Monte Carlo simulation

Monte Carlo simulations are used to model the probability of different outcomes. It can be used as a technique to assess the impact of risk and uncertainty in forecasting investment returns.

Multi factor model

Calculations comparing two or more factors to analyse relationships between variables and the resulting performance, often to help build portfolios that have specific characteristics.



Net Asset Value. A company’s assets minus its liabilities.

Naked short selling

Selling stock short without borrowing it. Illegal in some countries.

Net asset value per share

NAV divided by the number of shares.

Net profit

Profit left after all the overheads have been accounted for.

New York Stock Exchange

The world’s largest stock exchange. Based in Wall Street.


One pound sterling (£).

Nikkei 225

The leading index of the Tokyo Stock Exchange.

Nominal value

The face value of a security.


Office for National Statistics. The UK government’s statistics unit.


Organisation of petroleum exporting companies. Cartel of most of the world’s oil exporters.


Over the counter. A financial contract, such as a derivative, that is tailor-made for a client and not traded on an exchange.

Old Lady of Threadneedle Street

The Bank of England. Derives from an 18th century cartoon by James Gillroy.

Open Ended Investment Company (OEIC)

An OEIC is a type of open ended investment vehicle available in the UK. The fund manager can create shares when money is invested and redeem shares as requested by shareholders, who thereby gain exposure to the underlying assets chosen by the fund manager that determine the shareholders´ returns.

Open position

A trade that has not yet been closed with an opposing trade and can still incur a profit or a loss.

Opening bell

The start of the trading day on the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.

Operating profit or loss

The profit or loss from a company’s main trading activity. EBIT and EBITDA are examples of this.


The right to buy (a call option) or to sell (a put option) a specific product at a specific price within a specified time.

Ordinary shares

An ownership interest in a listed company. Holders are entitled to vote on certain company issues and to receive dividends.


One who ignores bad news.

Out of the money

When it would not be profitable to exercise an option.


Holding more of a stock or sector than the benchmark index.

Paid in capital

The amount of capital contributed by investors during common or preferred stock issuances.

Par Value

Face value of a bond.

PE ratio

Price/earnings ratio. The current market price divided by earnings per share.

PEG ratio

The price/earnings to growth ratio is a relative measure of a stock’s value. By taking the company´s earnings growth into account, it is often thought of as being more comprehensive than the P/E ratio. The lower the PEG ratio, the more attractively valued the stock.


An investor who lets greed cloud their judgement.


The smallest unit of price for any foreign currency. Equals 0.0001.

Poison pill

Strategy designed to foil a hostile takeover.


Preference shares

These rank above ordinary shares. They have fixed rate dividends and no voting rights unless the dividend is in arrears.


The amount by which a bond or share sells above its par value.

Price to book ratio

The price-to-book ratio can be used to assess a security’s market value to its book value. It can be calculated by dividing the current closing price of the stock book value per share. A lower ratio could mean the stock is good value.

Private key

A secret number that allows access to a cryptocurrency account. Known only by the account holder.

Private equity

Funds invested in new and growing businesses. Also known as venture capital.

Profit and loss account

Gives a company’s financial results over a period, usually a financial year.

Profit margin

Net income divided by revenue.

Public key

A public code number attached to a cryptocurrency account. Available to people who want to trade with you.

Pump and dump

When the market is bullish and praises an asset, leading to a fast price increase, followed by a crash.

Put option

The right to sell an agreed amount of a commodity or security for an agreed price by an agreed date.

Quantitative easing

A central bank way of increasing the money supply.

Quarterly report

US companies have to report every quarter.


Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?

Who will guard the guards? What happens when a regulator fails to regulate correctly?


Retail Price Index. A measure of inflation in the UK.


A rise in prices after a fall.

Rate of return

The annual income from an investment as a percentage of the original investment cost.


The gain on an investment.

Reuters Instrument Code (RIC)

Internationally agreed standard for tradable currency units (including cryptocurrencies) represented by three letters: USD – US Dollar, GBP – Great British pound sterling, BTC – Bitcoin, ETH – Etherium.

Reverse takeover

When a smaller company buys a larger company.

Rights issue

An opportunity for existing shareholders to buy new shares at a discount.


R-squared represents the percentage of a fund or security’s movements that can be explained by movements in a benchmark index.

S&P 500

Standard & Poor’s 500 index. A general market index of 500 stocks.

Scalping (forex)

Forex scalping is taking advantage of mini currency movements for profit.


Securities and Exchange Commission. The government agency which regulates markets in the US.

Scrip issue

Extra shares issued free to existing shareholders. Also known as a bonus issue.

Seller’s market

High prices and limited supply.


The completion of a purchase or sale.

Share buy back

When a company buys some of its own shares to reduce its issued share capital.

Share capital

Funding raised through the issue of shares.

Sharpe ratio

The most common method of computing risk-adjusted return. It is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of risk.


Someone without a clear investment strategy.

Shop Price Index

Measures changes in retail prices. Conducted by the British Retail Consortium.


Having sold shares first expecting the price to fall.

Short covering

Buying securities to close a short position.

Short sale

Selling first with the aim of buying back at a lower price to make a profit.


Self-invested personal pension – the holder chooses the investments in the pension.

Soft commodities

Commodities other than metals.


The ability of a company to cover its liabilities.


Sovereign debt


Difference between the bid and offer prices (or bid and ask price).

Spot market

A market where financial instruments and commodities are traded for instant delivery.

Square Mile

The City of London


Someone who buys a new share issue with the intention of selling it quickly for a profit.


When economic stagnation meets inflation.

Stamp duty

A 0.5% tax charged on purchases of certain shares.


US term for an ordinary share.

Stop-loss order

An order to sell at a price below the current market price if the price falls, designed to minimise losses.

Stop order

An order to buy or sell once a certain price has been reached.

Structured products

Set investment strategies where returns are based on the performance of the underlying assets, which may include a single security, a basket of securities, options, indices, commodities, debt, forex or even derivatives.

Supply chain finance (SCF)

AKA supplier finance or reverse factoring; a set of solutions to optimise cash flow that enables businesses to lengthen their payment terms to suppliers.


A type of derivative where two parties agree to exchange assets or cashflows for an agreed period.

Take-profits order

Order specifying the exact rate or variation from the current price point at which to close out an open order for a profit.

Target Return Funds

Aim to deliver positive returns in all market conditions. The funds set their target, (usually against Libor) aiming to beat it by two or three percentage points.


A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.


A compulsory contribution to state coffers, levied by the government on the income of workers and the profits of businesses or on the sales of classes of products.

Technical analysis

Focus on the statistical analysis of price movements, assuming the price correctly reflects all the available information about that stock.


Treasury Inflation Protected Securities. Bonds backed by the US Treasury that track inflation.

Takeover bid

An offer to a firm’s shareholders to buy their shares for a specified price.

Tangible assets

Assets you can touch.


The minimum price change possible in a financial market.



An investment approach based on looking at the market and the economy and picking stocks that could benefit from the situation.

Trailing stop

Stop loss order that moves with the price of the stock.


The UK government department in charge of public finance and economic policy.

Treasury bill

A form of short-term government borrowing.


A company’s total sales in a set period.

Uberrima fides

Latin for utmost good faith, the principle behind insurance that requires the policyholder to be honest and disclose all information that could affect the price.

Ultra vires

Beyond one’s legal power or authority.


The underlying asset on which a derivative is based.


Holding less of a stock or sector than your policy, or that is recommended.


A financial institution that guarantees to buy a proportion of any unsold shares when a new issue is offered for sale to the public.


A private company valued at over $1bn. Derives from the rarity factor.


Sale of a stock at one tick up from the previous sale price.

Uptick rule

US short selling rule.

Value investing

An investment strategy that focuses on buying securities that appear undervalued, focusing on investments that appear to be trading at a discount based on measures of relative value.

Variable costs

Change according to the level of a company’s output.

Vertical merger

A merger between two companies in the same industry but at different production stages.



The amount and frequency with which an investment fluctuates in value.


The number of shares traded in a day.


The amount of stock in an index relative to the total index.


Someone who owns large amounts of cryptocurrency.


Rapid change in direction of a share price.

White knight

A friendly bidder when a company is subject to a hostile takeover bid.

With profits

Diverse, pooled investment fund, usually offered by an insurer, with profits and annual bonuses added to the policy.


West Texas Intermediary. Grade of crude oil used as a pricing benchmark.


Income generated by an asset on an annual basis, expressed as a percentage of the asset’s purchase or market price.

Zero uptick

A trade at the same price as the one immediately before it but higher than the transaction before that.

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Risk warning: transactions with non-deliverable over-the-counter instruments are a risky activity and can bring not only profit but also losses. The size of the potential loss is limited to the size of the deposit. Past profits do not guarantee future profits. Use the training services of our company to understand the risks before you start operations.

Capital Com (UK) Limited is registered in England and Wales with company registration number 10506220. Authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), under register number 793714.

Capital Com SV Investments Limited is regulated by Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC) under license number 319/17.

Closed joint-stock company “Capital Com Bel” is regulated by National Bank of the Republic of Belarus, registered by Minsk city executive committee 19.03.2020 with company registration number 193225654. Address: 220030, the Republic of Belarus, Minsk, Internatsionalnaya street 36/1, office 823. Certificate of inclusion in the register of forex companies No. 16 dated 16.04.2020.

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Economic calendar
6 April, 2020
22:00 USD